Residential segregation, or the physical separation of groups into different neighbourhoods, may have negative effects, such as decreased chances on the labour market among minority groups. There is however no accepted standard for segregation measurement, mostly as the geographical areas concerned differ much in size and distribution. We propose an innovative measure of segregation, where neighbourhoods are defined from around individuals instead of being based on administrative borders. Our new measures of socio-economic and ethnic segregation will be comparable across cities and countries, and may be used by academics and practitioners in order to combat segregation and its negative effects.

Project website

Animation clip of the project

Lead partner

Stockholm University, Department of Human Geography


Human Geography & Sociology at University of Oslo, Statistics Denmark, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute, and Interface Demography at Vrije Universiteit Brussel


JPI Urban Europe, 2014-2017


1.6 million euros

Researchers in the Stockholm group

Karen Haandrikman (project leader), Michael Nielsen (postdoc), Eva Andersson and Bo Malmberg.

Selection of publications

  • Haandrikman, Karen, Rafael Costa, Bo Malmberg, Adrian Farner Rogne, & Bart Sleutjes (2021), Socio-economic segregation in European cities. A comparative study of Brussels, Copenhagen, Amsterdam, Oslo and Stockholm. Urban Geography. Open access.

  • Wimark, Thomas, Karen Haandrikman and Michael M. Nielsen (2019), Migrant labor market integration: The association between initial settlement and subsequent employment and income among migrants. Geografiska Annaler: Series B, Human Geography, 101(2): 118-137. Open access.

  • Andersson, Eva K., Torkild Hovde Lyngstad and Bart Sleutjes, Comparing patterns of segregation in North-Western Europe: A multiscalar approach (editorial introduction to special issue). European Journal of Population 34(2): 151-168. Open access.

  • Andersson, Eva K., Bo Malmberg, Rafael Costa, Bart Sleutjes, Marcin Jan Stonawski and Helga A. G. de Valk, A comparative study of segregation patterns in Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands and Sweden: Neighbourhood concentration and representation of non-European migrants. European Journal of Population 34(2): 251-275. Open access.

  • Malmberg, Bo, Eva K. Andersson, Michael M. Nielsen and Karen Haandrikman, Residential segregation of European and non-European migrants in Sweden: 1990-2012. European Journal of Population 34(2): 169-193. Open access.

  • Nielsen, Michael Meinhild and Pontus Hennerdal (2017), Changes in the residential segregation of immigrants in Sweden from 1990 to 2012: Using a multi scalar segregation measure that accounts for the modifiable areal unit problem. Applied Geography ​87: 73-84.

  • Nielsen, Michael Meinild, Karen Haandrikman, Rafael Costa, Bart Sleutjes, Marcin Stonawski and Adrian F. Rogne (2017), Residential Segregation in 5 European Countries. Technical Report. ResSegr Working Paper 2017:2.


Karen Haandrikman,