Looking for opportunities and creating new urbanism in the developing countries: local dynamics and policy implications
Conveners: Patience Mususa, Cristina Rodrigues and Cristiano Lanzano, Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala
In developing countries’ urban policy, the analytical dichotomy between rural and urban still dominates. However, new large scale investments in mining, commercial agriculture and border trade in non-urban areas as well as activities such as urban agriculture in and around cities is challenging the distinction between rural and urban. Many of these countries have experienced in the last decade a contradictory process of economic growth, which has attracted large flows of foreign investment, and at the same time growing social-economic inequality, conflicts and displacement. Its citizens both aspire to make it and become a success, while at the same time try to survive what are often uncertain economic prospects. This political economic situation requires for many a mobility between sites that offer new opportunities and social networks. It also calls on an ability to navigate various occupations and to draw on a wide range of skills to get by. These trends have given way to certain forms of the urban and the rural that do not fit neatly into the classic analytical categories often found in urban policy in developing countries. These patterns have also affected modes of sociality in cities and rural areas, giving rise to contestations over access to resources such as land and services, as well as over notions of belonging. At the same time, they offer insight into how to bridge the dualistic development agenda that has tended to be skewed towards the urban. The panel invites papers from scholars working on these topics in a variety of disciplines and developing countries’ contexts.
23 Aug., 16:00–17:30, Högbom Lecture Hall
- Towards resolving competing and conflicting interests for land in the peri-urban areas of Ethiopia in the era of rapid urbanization. Achamyeleh Gashu Adam, Bahir Dar University.
- The challenges of urbanization in a constantly evolving context. The constraints of urban management in the context of Djibouti. Pascal Rey, ADESS laboratory.
- Planned city extensions as a response to rapid urbanization in the Philippines. Carmeli Marie C. Chaves, University of the Philippines.
- Rapid assessment tool for traditional Indian neighbourhoods: a case study of Alwar walled city in Rajasthan. Mani Dhingra, Indian Institute of Technology.
Towards resolving competing and conflicting interests for land in the peri-urban areas of Ethiopia in the era of rapid urbanization. Achamyeleh Gashu Adam, Bahir Dar University.
Economic and population growth induced urban expansion in Ethiopia like most sub-Saharan countries is spilling over in the peri-urban areas in terms of space and population. As a result a constant change in land tenure system and land use is a common phenomenon in the transitional peri-urban areas of Ethiopia. Above all, local peri-urban landholders/farmers adjacent to the municipal boundaries are expected to lose and be displaced from their land on which their families have lived and earned income from it for generations. In spite of the constantly changing situations and challenges and diversity actors interested in peri-urban areas, the effort to map out the actors interested in peri-urban land and the challenges facing peri-urban land tenure system as a result of rapid urbanization in Ethiopia is limited. Thus, the study is primarily intended to look into the challenges imposed on peri-urban land rights as a result of the growing demand of land for urbanization. It is also aimed to identify the principal actors interested on peri-urban land. A mixture of desk review and case study research approaches were employed. Finally, the findings of this study have shown that urban boundary expansion into the peri-urban areas has been generating a widespread sense of insecurity and fear to loss land and insecurity among peri-urban communities. On the contrary, the urbanities or the new recipients of land from peri-urban areas are being provided better and thicker bundles of land rights than the indigenous local peri-urban landholders. This study has also shown that transitional peri-urban areas have been displaying all forms of competitions for land by people of diverse backgrounds. Therefore, the multifaceted peri-urban land tenure problems associated with urbanization requires introducing an alternative and adapted urban land development approach which can meet to satisfy the dynamic peri-urban contexts and all stakeholders fairly.
The challenges of urbanization in a constantly evolving context. The constraints of urban management in the context of Djibouti. Pascal Rey, ADESS laboratory.
In the Republic of Djibouti, the legal and regulatory framework of urban planning and construction is a product of colonial history. Many texts from this period are still in use despite regular review of this body of legislation since 1990. This situation generates structural disruption within the national administration and beyond a blockage in their terms of Application as the reality of urban social practices and structures of political and administrative institutions have evolved. Djibouti is now facing to a new context (neighbouring countries with complicate political situations, new importation hub for the area, installation of military bases of competing countries…). The main issue is the lack of legislation and uniform regulation, adapted and updated but also the gap between texts and practices. In general, over the years, it has established an inaccuracy and a dilution at the level of laws and regulations, leading to a distortion, first, between social practices and practical administrative bodies and, on another hand, between the roles and powers of the departments responsible for urban development and management of the city. In this context, the state works continuously on the revision, or even the creation, of legal texts (codes, laws, decrees, decrees ...) to create a regulatory framework conducive to urban development of Djibouti. The Communication proposes to explore the existing and limitations induced by legal lack in certain areas which fall within the planning law and reflect on urban development strategies proposed for cities in a context where the state is still young and therefore has not been able to legislate on all aspects related to its urban management.
Planned city extensions as a response to rapid urbanization in the Philippines. Carmeli Marie C. Chaves, University of the Philippines.
The rapid urbanization in many Philippine cities and weak planning among local governments has resulted in urban sprawl and congestion in the city center as a common situation . Metropolitan areas and emerging cities are characterized by an urban bias, with many rural residents left in the wayside: in addition to poor street connectivity between urban and rural areas, rural villages away from the urban core are underserved in terms of public services and livelihood. A proposed urban development planning strategy is the planned city extension (PCE), which is intended to address uncontrolled urbanization, runaway population growth and unregulated land use conversion. The planned city extension has particular standards that help achieve sustainable development. These standards prescribe appropriate development densities, adequate public spaces, mixed land uses, an efficient and connected road network within the city and between urban and rural areas, environmental resilience, and social mix, including housing for various socio-economic and ethnic groups. This study describes the PCE as an urban development planning tool as piloted in Zamboanga City in southern Philippines. The strategy has received the support of city mayors and policy makers at the national level, and is planned for rollout in other similar cities in the Philippines. The paper focuses on the methodology of planning the PCE, and shares lessons learning during the pilot experience. Proposed policies in achieving sustainable urban and regional development are described.
Rapid assessment tool for traditional Indian neighbourhoods: a case study of Alwar walled city in Rajasthan. Mani Dhingra, Indian Institute of Technology.
The formal urban planning framework for modern Indian cities is not enough for its historical cities which are mostly characterised by multi-functional spaces, heterogeneous societies, compact urban form and diverse economic linkages. The study analyses the underlying micro-level issues and opportunities existing within these old communities. The historic walled city of Alwar in Rajasthan in India is selected as the case study where traditional lifestyle still prevails. A 3.80 sq.km soft boundary is delineated within 40.70 sq.km of total developed city area based on various historical layers of development. The identified 66 old neighbourhoods are further merged together to formulate 30 Neighbourhood Planning Units (NPUs) through significance mapping. A Neighbourhood Vitality Tool is devised which comprises seven aspects viz. demography, social, physical, economic, environmental, crime and heritage and vitality scores are evaluated and mapped using GIS with the help of primary data collected during household surveys. Analysis of data based on developed vitality tool bring forth the challenges faced by the Alwar old walled city such as vacant and dilapidated housing, traffic congestion and gentrification in contrast to its rich intangible heritage which can be used as an opportunity for its creative economic growth. The Neighbourhood Vitality Tool is proposed to act as a rapid assessment and monitoring tool for old historic neighbourhoods in culturally rich countries like India. The spatial and factual data can be further organised in the form of an illustrative chart to help support local decision making and objective development process in other historical cities.
August 16, 2016
Page editor: Anders Rickegård
Source: Department of Human Geography